Technical Glossary

Hey guys!

So I’ve decided to create a page where I will collect any technical vocabulary I use in my blog.

Technical vocabulary is vocabulary related to language or linguistics.  We don’t use it very often in regular conversation, but I use it a lot when I teach English to my students.

I will update this page any time I use any new technical words or expressions, so please check back once in a while!

I will list each word, then

  • Its Japanese translation
  • Its part of speech
  • Its meaning
  • Some examples (if possible)

A

Ability

  • 機能
  • Noun
  • Quality of being able to do something

Abstract

  • 抽象ー
  • Adjective
  • Not concrete; not visible or tangible

Action Verb

  • 一般動詞
  • Noun
  • A verb which expresses an action
  • Run, jump, take, grab, hit

Active form/tense

  • 活性形
  • Noun
  • The regular verb conjugation of a verb

Active verb

  • 能動態動詞
  • Noun
  • A verb that has been conjugated regularly

Adjective

  • 形容詞
  • Noun
  • A word that describes a noun
  • big, easy, silly, fun, challenging

Adjective form

  • 形容詞形
  • Noun
  • A way to say a verb or noun as an adjective

Adverb

  • 副詞
  • Noun
  • A word that describes a verb or an adjective
  • quickly, carefully, very, somewhat

Affirmative

  • 肯定的な
  • Adjective
  • answering with a “yes”

Appropriate

  • ふさわしい
  • adjective
  • suitable or fitting for a condition or situation

Assume

  • 勝手に思う
  • Verb
  • take for granted, believe, suppose

B

Broad

  • 意味の広い
  • Adjective
  • Having a wide range of meanings

Build

  • 築き上げる
  • Verb
  • increase

C

Certainty

  • 確実、確信
  • Noun
  • Confidence that something is true

Check

  • 確認する
  • Verb
  • verify or consult to make sure is correct or accurate

Clarify

  • 明らかにする
  • Verb
  • Make clear or easy to understand

Clear

  • 明白な
  • Adjective
  • Easily understandable

Collocate

  • 連語になる
  • Verb
  • occur together in order

Collocation

  • 連語、連語を作ること
  • Noun
  • The act of collocating, the state of being collocated

Common

  • 普通の、よくあること
  • Adjective
  • Used often and/or by many people

Concrete

  • 有形の
  • Adjective
  • Material or tangible, not abstract

Connotation

  • 意外の意味
  • Noun
  • An idea or feeling associated with a word

Construct

  • 組み立てる
  • Verb
  • Form by putting parts together

Context

  • 文脈
  • Noun
  • The situation in which something happens

D

Degree

  • 度合い
  • Noun
  • The extent or measure of something

Double entendre

  • 両儀を持つ語句
  • Noun
  • a word or expression that has two meanings, one of them is usually humorous.

E

Effective

  • 効力のある
  • Adjective
  • Having the intended or desired effect

Error(s)

  • 間違え
  • Noun
  • a mistake

Express

  • 言い表す、表現する
  • Verb
  • Put into words, communicate, make feelings or thoughts known

Expression(s)

  • 表現
  • Noun
  • A particular word or phrase

F

Formal

  • 形式の
  • Adjective
  • Following accepted norms or rules

G

Grammatical

  • 文法的
  • Adjective
  • About or relating to grammar

I

Impolite

  • 失礼な、無礼な
  • Adjective
  • Not polite

Indicate

  • 指摘する
  • Verb
  • Show

Inquire

  • 尋ねる
  • Verb
  • Seek information by asking a question

Informal

  • 会話体の、形式ばらない
  • Adjective
  • Not formal

Interchangeable

  • 入れ替えられる
  • Adjective
  • Can be changed with something else

Interjection

  • 感嘆詞
  • Noun
  • A part of speech that expresses an affective state and stands on its own
  • Uh, what, wow, cool, yay

Intransitive verb

  • 自動詞
  • Noun
  • A verb which does not require an object

K

Key point

  • 重点
  • Noun
  • An important part, aspect or part

L

Language Transfer

  • Noun
  • Applying rules or knowledge from one’s native language to a foreign language

Listener

  • 聞き手
  • Noun
  • The person or people listening

Living Suffix

  • 生き接頭辞
  • Noun
  • A suffix which can be added to any verb to form a new word

M

Modal(s)/Modal Verb(s)

  • 法助動詞
  • Noun
  • A helping verb that expresses possibility or necessity

N

Narrow

  • 意味の狭い
  • Adjective
  • Having only one or very few meanings

Natural

  • 自然な
  • Adjective
  • Expected or accepted as normal or correct

Necessity

  • 不可避性
  • Noun
  • Being necessary or unavoidable

Negative

  • 消極的な
  • Adjective
  • Not positive

Negative Form

  • 不定形
  • Noun
  • The form of a form that is in the negative
  • Unhappy, impossible, indirect

Neutral

  • 中立の
  • Adjective
  • Having neither positive nor negative connotation

(Not) Necessarily

  • とは限らない
  • Adverb
  • Sometimes true but not always

Noun Form

  • 名詞形
  • Noun
  • A way to change an adjective or verb into a noun

Numeral(s)

  • 数詞
  • Noun

O

Object

  • 目的語
  • Noun
  • The part of the sentence after the subject and verb

Outdated

  • 時代遅れの
  • Adjective
  • old-fashioned, not commonly used any more

P

Parrot

  • おうむ返しに言う
  • Verb
  • Repeat without understanding

Passive form/tense

  • 動詞の形態
  • Noun
  • A verb conjugation that uses “be” and the past participle

Passive verb

  • 受動詞
  • Noun
  • A verb used in the past participle with “be”

Past Participle

  • 過去分詞
  • Noun
  • A verb form used in perfect and passive tenses and sometimes as an adjective

Perfect Tense

  • 完了形
  • Noun
  • A verb tense that uses “have” with a past participle

Permission

  • 許可
  • Noun
  • Permitting, allowing

Phrasal Verb

  • 句動詞
  • Noun
  • A verb with another word or words (usually prepositions) that takes on a particular meaning

Phrase

  • Noun
  • A sequence of words that have meaning but are not a sentence

Polite

  • 丁寧な
  • Adjective
  • Showing consideration for others

Possibility

  • 可能性
  • Noun
  • Being possible

Preposition

  • 前置詞
  • Noun
  • A word that indicates a relation between two nouns or a verb and a noun or an adjective and noun

Pronunciation

  • 発音
  • Noun
  • Utterance of speech in a certain sound

Q

Quantifiable

  • 量化できる
  • Adjective
  • Able to be counted

Quantity

  • Noun
  • An exact number or amount

Question word

  • 疑問詞
  • Noun
  • A word that is used to make an open question
  • Who, what, where

R

Redundant

  • 余剰的な
  • Adjective
  • Needlessly repeated

Repeat

  • 繰り返す
  • Verb
  • Say the same thing someone else says

Request

  • 要請、頼む
  • Noun, verb
  • Politely asking someone to do something for you

Require

  • 必要とする
  • Verb
  • Have or make a necessity

Root (word)

  • 語根
  • Noun
  • the main component of a word
  • mem, vis, audi(o)

S

Sentence

  • 文章
  • Noun
  • A group of words which forms a coherent meaning and can stand on its own.  It contains at least a subject and verb and usually an object.

Speaker

  • 話し手
  • Noun
  • The person or people who speak

Specific

  • 特定の
  • Adjective
  • Explicit, definite, intended for or applying to a particular thing

State

  • 状態
  • Noun
  • The way something is

State

  • 述べる
  • Verb
  • Say something is true

Statement

  • Noun
  • A sentence which is not a question or a command

Stative Verb

  • 状態動詞
  • Noun
  • A verb that expresses a state

Stiff

  • 堅苦しい、堅い
  • Adjective
  • Overly formal

Stress

  • アクセント
  • Noun
  • The force with which a syllable is spoken

Subject

  • 主語
  • Noun
  • The first part of a sentence, before the verb

Subtle

  • 微細な
  • Adjective
  • So small it is difficult to notice

Suffix

  • 接頭辞
  • Noun
  • A part added at the end of a root
  • -able, -ible, -ly, -ment

T

Tend

  • 傾向がある
  • Verb
  • Be true often or in most cases

Tone

  • 語調
  • Noun
  • The pitch of a spoken expression

Transitive Verb

  • 他動詞
  • Noun
  • A verb which requires a direct object

U

Uncommon

  • 珍しい、よくあることではない
  • Adjective
  • Not used often or by many people

V

Verb

  • 動詞
  • Noun
  • A word that indicates an action or a state
  • Go, stay, have, be, take

Verb form

  • 動詞形
  • Noun
  • The way to change a noun or adjective into a verb

Verb tense

  • 動詞の時制
  • Noun
  • The conjugation of a verb that determines the time of the action or state
  • Present simple tense, past continuous tense, present perfect continuous tense, etc.

 

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