Monthly Archives: May 2015

Prepositions of Time!

Last time we talked about parts of speech.  So this time, let’s talk about prepositions!

Prepositions have many functions, but one of their most common and basic ones is indicating time.  In many languages, you can use the same one or two prepositions to talk about time, but in English there are a lot more!

But if you know which prepositions to use, there are some simple rules that you can follow that will help you with most conversations about time.

So let’s talk about the three most fundamental (and confusing!) prepositions: at, on, and in.


At is used for clock time.

  • At six o’clock
  • At seven thirty-five
  • At midnight

“I’m going to bed at ten o’clock tonight.”

What time does the show start?”

At 6:30.”

Be careful, though!  Many English learners think “midnight” and “noon” refer to times of day instead of clock times, but they are clock times.  Specifically, midnight is 12:00am (when most people are asleep) and noon is 12:00pm (when many people are eating lunch).  So, for example, 12:01am is NOT midnight and 12:01pm is NOT noon.

At is also used for one more time expression: night.

  • At night

“I usually watch TV at night.”

When do you exercise?”

“Usually at night.”


On is used for single days.

  • On Monday
  • On January 10th
  • On my birthday
  • On Christmas

“Work starts again on Monday.”

“What are you going to do on your birthday?”

When is your husband coming back from his business trip?”

On the 4th.”


In is used for any period of time longer than a day.

  • In December (one month)
  • In 2015 (one year)
  • In the summer (about three months)

“I’m moving to Tokyo in January.”

“I’m going to go surfing in the summer.”

When did you start working here?”

In 2010.”

In is also used to talk about times of day.

  • In the morning
  • In the afternoon
  • In the evening

“I exercised in the morning.”

“I’m going to meet some friends in the evening.”

“When do you take a nap?”

In the afternoon.”

In can also be used to talk about a point in the future.

  • In two days.
  • In a few days.
  • In 2020.

“I’m going to move in three weeks.”

“The movie is going to start in an hour.”

When will dinner be ready?”

In just a few minutes.”

That’s it for now!  Check back in a couple weeks to see how to use these prepositions to talk about locations and directions!


4 Good Reasons to Record Yourself Speaking English

Hey again everybody, good to see you again.  🙂

I often get students asking me how to improve their English at home, or how to improve their English by themselves.  This is a great question.  Let me introduce a new way to improve not only your speaking, but your vocabulary and grammar too:

Record yourself speaking English.


Wait, what?  How would that help me improve my English?

I’m glad you asked.


So what are the four reasons it’s a good idea to record yourself speaking English?

1. It’s active practice

When you are recording yourself speaking English, it means you are practicing!  For many of us, it’s hard to find another native speaker who will practice with us.  Even if we can find someone, it’s not always easy to do it regularly.  Sometimes they are busy, or we become busy.  But who says you have to have another partner just to speak English?  Instead of just sitting and reading or listening, why not be a little more active and speak!  Speaking by yourself is better than not speaking at all, and it’s (usually) much more active than just listening or reading.

2. It will improve your fluency

I noticed something very interesting with my students who started recording themselves: they started speaking much more smoothly and fluidly.  This change happened immediately in their recordings, and gradually during our lessons.  Why?  Because when you are talking to yourself, there is no pressure from anyone else!  No one is pressuring you to speak faster or speak correctly.  You can take your time, speak at your pace, and even make mistakes and there’s no penalty!  It’s a great way to take the pressure off and just speak.  You may even be surprised at how good your English actually is when you just relax.

3. You can improve your English by revising

“Ok,” you might be saying, “but why should I record it?  Why not just talk out loud?”  This is a good question!  Let me ask you another one: why keep an English journal?  So you have something to look over in the future!  Journal writing is a way to keep a record of what you’ve done and it allows you to go over past mistakes as you learn more English to improve your English even further!  In the same way, you can listen to an audio recording again and catch mistakes.  Sometimes you make mistakes while you are speaking that you don’t even realize!  Recording yourself speaking helps with this.  You can also share it with a teacher so she can help you revise, but you don’t have to.

4. You can improve your English by reflecting

The final and maybe most important reason to record yourself is because it gives you opportunities for reflective practice.  Reflective practice is, very simply, thinking about your learning!  Normally, when people study or learn something, they just figure out what to do, do it, and that’s it.  Instead, you can think about what you did.  In this case, it means listening to your recording, and stopping at some points and thinking:

“Was that correct?”

“Was that natural?”

“Is there another way to say that?”

“Would a native speaker say it that way?”

“What’s the different between the word/expression I used and another similar one?”

“Could I have said this instead?”

Even if you don’t know the answers to the questions you think of, write them down!  The next time you have an opportunity, ask a native speaker (like me!) your questions.  Alternatively, you could experiment: try thinking of other ways to say what you said, and try them out with native speakers.  Reflective practice is the best way to grow as an English learner.

So there you have it!  Four good reasons to record yourself speaking English.  You can do it as often as you want, as long as you want.  I recommend doing it at least once a week, 3-5 times a week is better.  If you are not sure what to talk about, start very short.  Even just one minute is enough!

So give it a try!  Let me know how it goes on twitter or in the comments, and feel free to ask me any questions that come up!


By the way, if you want some great ideas for speaking (or writing) topics, check out this website:

They have a fantastic list of interesting, crazy and funny topics for you to speak (or write) about.

Parts of Speech

Hey everybody!


Did you enjoy your golden week?  I hope so!

Today I’d like to talk about a really important aspect of grammar called parts of speech.  No, parts of speech have nothing to do with making speeches!  They are a way of categorizing different words.  It helps us know how to use those words.  So let’s take a look at the parts of speech right now:

Words that are things, people, places or ideas Pen, car, dog, café, teacher, music, experience
Words that are states or actions Feel, have, do, go, try, collect, experience
Words that describe nouns Big, tall, expensive, convenient, strict, soft, interesting
Words that describe verbs or adjectives Quickly, carefully, really, very, somewhat
Words that tell us the time, location or direction of something; also separates two words In, at, on, for, with, to, of
Words that replace nouns I, you, he, she, it, they, them, we, us, me
Words that connect other parts of speech or sentences And, or, but, because, since, when
Words or expressions that are used alone Hey, huh, oh, ah, oops, ouch
Words that go with nouns to indicate which or how many The, a, an, no

Many teachers consider pronouns a separate category, but some teachers consider it part of nouns as well.

Ok, so what?  Why are parts of speech so important?

On a very basic level, they tell us how to use words.  For example, what is wrong with this sentence?

“The dog floor.”


That’s right, there’s no verb connecting the two nouns!  If someone said this to you, what would you do?  If we don’t apply the parts of speech properly, it’s hard to understand other people.

How about this one?

“I ate pizza my house.”

In this case, it is missing a preposition to separate the two nouns (“pizza” and “my house”).  Without the preposition (I ate pizza at my house) it’s very difficult to understand.

More importantly though, sometimes the same word is a different part of speech in different languages.  For instance, the word “confuse” is a verb (a transitive verb), so it connects a subject and an object like this:

“This book confuses me.”

But in Japanese, it is only an adjective – ややこしい – so it is used differently:


So very often when my students try to translate this into English, they say something like:

“This book is confuse me.”


Do you see the problem there?  Both “is” and “confuse” are verbs, so the sentence pattern became S-V-V-O, which is incorrect!  As you can see, recognizing parts of speech in the language you are studying is important.

So when you learn new vocabulary, be sure to find out what part of speech it is and practice using it with other parts of speech!

Knowing these eight categories is very helpful, but as your English improves, you will need to know more about each one!  There are different types of nouns and verbs and prepositions.  If you know about each type, you can use them even more naturally and become even more fluent!

Probably the most difficult part of speech is prepositions.  Many of my students hate prepositions, and I don’t blame them!  There are about 150 prepositions in English.  We only use about half of those in common speech, but that’s still a lot!  Japanese doesn’t have nearly as many.  They are a big challenge, so in the near future I’ll talk a little bit about a few of the most common prepositions and how to use them naturally.  Hope to see you then!

Would you like more resources on parts of speech?  Check out these links:

In English

In Japanese

Expressions and Idioms Glossary

Ok, here is the final glossary!

In this one, I’m going to compile all the useful expressions, idioms, collocations and other patterns that I used in my blog that I think will be helpful in conversations.

Again, I’ll update this glossary sometimes with new expressions, so please check it out again once in awhile!

A certain amount of


– A specific but unknown amount

“You can only bring a certain amount of money, but I don’t know how much exactly.”

As you wish


– Indicates that the speaker will comply with the listener’s wishes/commands (very formal, archaic)

“Waiter!  Could you take these plates please?”

As you wish.”

Be beyond words


– Unable to be expressed by words

“The beauty of this ocean is beyond words.”

Be born with a silver spoon in one’s mouth


– Be born into affluent or fortunate circumstances, usually wealthy.

“He’s never worked a day in his life. He was born with a silver spoon in his mouth.”

Be consistently active


– Take the same or similar actions regularly

“You just need to be consistently active to stay healthy.”

Be driven by


– feel pushed or extremely motivated

“He studies English because he‘s driven by a desire to live in America some day.”

Be familiar with


– have good knowledge about

“I‘m not familiar with this area, can you show me around?”

Be going on

– Continue, happen

“Even after everybody went home, he went on working.”

“Person A: My neighbor always plays loud music until after midnight.
Person B: Really? How long has that been going on?”

Be (highly) regarded


– be considered as someone respectable or admirable

“Celebrities are usually highly regarded in society.”

Be in the same boat


– be in the same or similar situation/circumstances.

“I’d like to lend you some money, but I’m in the same boat as you: I don’t have any money, either!”

Be open (with s/o):


– Candid, frank, receptive, free of prejudice

“It’s nice to be open with someone you love.”

Be particular (about N)


– fussy, difficult to please.

“She’s very particular about music:  She only listens to very famous J-pop singers.”

Be worth it


Having a quality or qualities that make it worthwhile

“Being a parent is tough, but it’s worth it.

By law


– be true according to the law

“You are required to file taxes every year by law.”

Circle of friends


– One’s group of friends

“He has a very big circle of friends.”

Cut (#) part(s) from s/t

何か から[#つの]部分をカットする

– Remove a section of something from something

“I didn’t like the movie. They cut too many parts from the book.”

Deeply ingrained


– Firmly established (usually in someone’s mind)

“He has a deeply ingrained work ethic, that’s why he’s such a hard worker.”

Develop into

– slowly/gradually become/change

“Because he didn’t go to the doctor to get treated, his cold developed into bronchitis.”

End up


Become ___ in the end.

“He put all his money on the number 23, but ended up losing it.”

Even if


– indicates that a possible situation would not prevent something from being true or happening

Even if you can’t speak English now, it doesn’t mean you can’t learn.”

Extrinsic motivation


– Being motivated by external factors

“Money is an example of extrinsic motivation.”

Get along with


Maintain a harmonious relationship with

“I don’t love my father in law, but we get along.”

Get s/o to do s/t


– Find a way to persuade or force someone to do something

“He always finds a way to get other people to do his work for him.”

Give s/o space


– Allow a period of time apart

“I don’t want to talk to you right now, please give me some space.”

Glass ceiling(s)


– A discriminatory barrier that prevents women from rising to higher positions, especially in a corporation.

“The only reason she hasn’t become a manager yet is because of this company’s glass ceiling.”

Have mixed feelings (about N)

名詞についての 複雑な心境 [です]。

– have both positive and negative feelings

Moving to Tokyo would give me a good opportunity to get a great job, but really crowded and noisy, so I have mixed feelings about it.

How ADJ is N


“How old is this house?”

Human rights


– something that people deserve to have or be able to do

“The freedom of speech is one of the most important human rights.”

I guess…


Hmm. The map said the restaurant was here, but I don’t see it. I guess this is the wrong place.

I would have to say…

– 私が言うとしたら。。

– I normally don’t say this, but I feel compelled to say…

“I like Tokyo and Osaka, but I’d have to say Osaka is better.”

Ignorance is bliss


People are happiest when they don’t know something.

“Look at that small child, so happy. I guess it’s true: ignorance is bliss.”

In general


– about or affecting the majority

“Japanese food, in general, is healthy.”

In summary


– indicating that the speaker is saying or explaining something briefly or shortly

In summary, our company is doing well.”

In the world


“Tokyo is the biggest city in the world.”

Intrinsic motivation


– Being motivated by internal factors

“Too many rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation.”

It’s okay to V-O


“I don’t know if it’s okay to smoke in here.”

Look like


– Look similar to

You look like a Buddhist monk with your haircut.

Lose motivation


“After the divorce, I lost motivation to keep working at a job I didn’t like.”

Majority vote


– a vote which more than half of the voters cast.

“In order to pass this bill, we need a majority vote.”

Make ___ different from/than ___


– Distinguish ___  from ___

“The food and hospitality make Osaka different than Tokyo.”

Make a gesture


– Gesture

“I don’t understand this gesture that you are making.”

Move up (in N)


– Improve one’s standings or rank

“I heard he has his own company now! He’s really moving up in the world.”

Mutual friends


– A group of three or more friends who all know each other.

“We had mutual friends in college so we hung out a lot together.”

No matter Q/W-S-V-O


– It doesn’t matter Q/W S-V-O.

No matter what I say to her, she won’t listen.”

Not… any more


– Something that was true before but is not true now and will not be true in the future.

“When I was a kid, I collected baseball cards, but I don’t collect them any more.”

Not to mention


– in addition to

Old/New friends


– A friend who you have known a long/short time.

“He’s a very old friend of mine from elementary school.”

“Let’s go to this party and make some new friends!”

Once a(n) N, always a(n) N


– If someone becomes a(n) N once, they will always be a(n) N.

“I wouldn’t go out with him.  You know what they say: once a cheater, always a cheater.”

Out of N


– Among

Out of the four seasons in Japan, spring is my favorite.”

Pros and cons


– The good points and bad points

Before taking this job, you need to weigh the pros and cons.

Put s/o (up) to s/t


– Urge or force to an action

“I didn’t want to do it, but my friend put me up to it.”

Safety net


– Guaranteed financial security

“I hope you have a safety net in case your business venture doesn’t succeed.”

See a difference


– to recognize, notice, realize or understand that something is different

“Did you cut your hair? Sorry, I don’t see a difference…”

Senior citizen


– An older person.

“Many movie theaters offer discounts for senior citizens.”

Stay the same


– Remain in the same way, state or situation

“They say the more things change, the more they stay the same.”

The point of ___ is


The purpose trying to be reached

The point of the story is (that) it’s important to be honest.”

There are all kinds of people in this world


Can you believe that guy?  He was so rude.  Well, I guess there really are all kinds of people in this world.

Vote against


– express one’s disapproval through election

“I didn’t like that presidential candidate, so I voted against him.”

Vote for


– express one’s approval through election

“I liked that presidential candidate, so I voted for him.”

(The) Welfare system


“Many people say Sweden has the best welfare system in the world.”

What do you think of…?


What did you think of that movie?  Was it good?

What is about N is ADJ?


English is hard?  What is so hard about it?

What is ADJ (about N) is


– Explaining why or how something is ADJ.

What is great about marriage is the companionship.”

Conversational Glossary

Hey guys!

Okay, for some reason I thought I already posted this, but apparently I didn’t, so I’m going to start over again.

Here is a list of words which I have used in my blogs.  I’ve compiled them to help you build your vocabulary for conversation.  These words are more useful in day-to-day conversation than the technical words, and there will be a lot of them!

Like the Technical Glossary, I’ll be updating this one once in awhile, so be sure to check back!

Because this list will be so long, I’m going to format it differently.  It will look like this:

Word (part of speech): Japanese

– Meaning

“Example sentence”

Here you go!


Acceptable (adj): 容認できる

– Can be accepted

“Being late to work every day is unacceptable.”

Accurate(ly) (adj/adv): 適切な・に

– Within acceptable limits of a standard or fact

“This weight scale is very accurate, so it’s worth the purchase.”

Acquire (v): 習得する、身に付ける

– get by effort or experience

“The best way to acquire a language is to use it.”

Activity (n): 活発

– State of being active

“It’s important that children engage in activity for their growth.”

Adamant (adj): 断固とした

– very determined, not willing to shake, definite

“He was very adamant about drinking coffee at Starbucks instead of Cafe Veloce, I don’t know what his problem is.”

Address (v): 向けて言う

– Direct the attention to

“We really need to address this problem as soon as possible.”

Adopt (v): 採用する

– Take and follow

“We need to adopt a new plan, the old one isn’t working.”

Advantage(s) (n): 利益

– Something beneficial or favorable.

“Being good-looking is an advantage in life.”

Affect (v): 及ばす、影響する

– Have an influence in changing

“That movie affected me very deeply.”

Apply (v): 適用する

– Put into special use, put into action

“Don’t just memorize new vocabulary, apply it, too!

Approach(es) (n): 取り込み方

– A way or means to something; a method for dealing with something

“A deep learning approach is better than a surface one.”

Attractive (adj): 魅力的な

– Physically pleasing to look at

“Which actors do you think are most attractive?”

Autonomous (adj): 自治権のある

– Independent in mind, self-directed

“Letting children take care of themselves helps them become more autonomous.”


Beauty (n): 美しさ

– An appearance or feeling that people like.

“Some people find beauty in traditional Japanese temples.”

Beholder(s) (n): 見る人

– A person who looks at something.

“Whether or not this painting is beautiful depends on the beholder.”

Beneficial (adj): 有利な

– producing a favorable result

“They say exercise is beneficial to your health.”

Besides (prep): 以外に

– in addition to, other than, except for

“Besides soccer, I also play baseball and tennis.”

Bias (n): 偏見

– an unfair act based on prejudice

“Don’t make a decision based on bias.”

Biased (adj): 偏した

– showing bias

“Action movies often portray men and women in a biased way.”

Birthrate (n): 出生率

– The ratio of total births to total population; how many babies are born compared to the population

“The birthrate in Japan has steadily been going down.”

Bother (v): せがむ

– cause to be irritated or annoyed

“Your smoking is bothering me so please stop.”

Bow (v): お辞儀する

– Incline the body or head in greeting

“In Japan, people often bow to each other.”

Broadcast media (n): 電波媒体

– TV and radio

“In the U.S., the broadcast media is regulated so that it is appropriate for children.”

Broaden (v): 広める

– Make broad or broader

“Travel really broadens your horizons.”


Capable (adj): 可能、行う能力がある

– possible, having the ability to do

“You can rely on him, he’s a very capable guy.”

Cause (v): 引き起こす、もたらす

– Bring about, be the cause, be the reason

“The earthquake caused a lot of damage.”

Certain (adj): ある

– fixed, definite

Certain teachers are better at teaching conversation.”

Childhood (adj):   幼い

– The time or state of being a child

“I have very fond memories of my childhood.”

Citizen(s) (n): 公民

– A person who is a resident of a city or country

“I was born in Japan, but now I’m an American citizen.”

Close (adj): 親しい

– Feeling intimate, having a strong relationship

“She’s a very close friend, so I can tell her anything.”

Cognitive (adj): 認知の、認知的な

– relating to or about thinking

“Learning is a great cognitive experience.”

Combat (v): 闘争する

– struggle against

“We need to combat prejudice in any way we can.”

Commonalit(y/ies) (n): 共通点、共通性

– Something that is shared or common among two or more people

“Having commonalities is important for maintaining friendships.”

Compete (v): 競争する

– Strive against each other to win or get something

“I love to compete by playing sports.”

Competition (n): 競争

– Striving against others to win or get something.

Competition on Wall Street is fierce!”

Compulsory (adj): 義務的な

– Required, obligatory

“Education is compulsory in many countries in the world.”

Conservative (adj): 保守主義の

– preferring traditional views and values.

“My dad doesn’t want to see many changes in politics, he’s very conservative.”

Condition (v): 慣らす

– cause to be in a certain condition

“Schools condition us to be perfect instead of creative.”

Consider N… (v): 。。だと考える

– Think of s/o as s/t, Regard s/o as s/t

“I consider you my best friend.”

Considerate (adj): 思いやりのある

– Regarding the feelings or needs of others.

“Thank you for being so considerate, and I’m sorry I was so selfish.”

Consistent(ly) (adj/adv): いつもと同じ

– reliable, steady

“It’s important to study consistently if you want to improve.”

Contribute (v): 貢献する

– help bring about a result

“All the stress from work probably contributed to you getting a cold.”

Cosmetic (adj): 美顔用の

– Improving the physical appearance of something

“She’s considering getting cosmetic surgery to hide her wrinkles.”

Countless (adj): 無数の

– incapable of being counted; both countless and innumerable are basically the same.

“He has countless old records at home. I think he’s a collector!”

Curl (v): ひねる

– twist into a spiral shape

“When did you curl your hair?”

Curly (adj): 巻き毛の

– having or looking like curls

“My dog’s fur is very curly.”

Cut (off) (v): 切り捨てる

– Separate from, Discontinue

“My wife dislikes him, so I had to cut off our friendship.”


Date (v): 付き合う、デートする

– Go out with someone romantically

“When did you start dating?”

Deadline (n): 期限

– a time limit

“I need to give this to my teacher before the deadline.”

Deal (with) (v): 扱う

– take action on, do business with

“If you don’t deal with your problem now, it will just get worse.”

Deceased (adj): 死亡した

– Dead, passed away (very formal)

“My favorite author is J.R.R. Tolkien. Unfortunately, he’s deceased now.”

Define (v): 意味を説明する、定義する

– State the exact meaning of

“Each person defines beauty differently.”

Describe (v): 説明する

– Give an account or represent what s/t is

“Can you describe your best friend?”

Desire (n): 欲望

– The feeling of wanting of something

“You have to have a strong desire to succeed.”

Demonstration (n): デモ、示威運動

– publicly showing one’s opinion or view, usually in a group.

“We’re going to hold a demonstration downtown tonight, do you want to join?”

Desperate (adj): 必死

– extremely urgent, driven by great need or desire

“Ever since she turned 30 she became desperate to get married.”

Develop (v): 発展する

– Help s/t grow

“It takes time to develop a friendship.”

Development (n): 発展

– the state of being developed

“Technology has really advanced human development.”

Discrepancy (n): 不一致

– Something different, a disagreement

“There’s a discrepancy between your reported income and your spending.”

Discrimination (n): 差別

– treatment based on a group instead of an individual

“Hiring a man instead of a woman, if the woman is better at the job, is sexual discrimination.”

Discuss (v): 話し合う、論じる

– speak with another person or other people about

“I need to discuss this problem with you as soon as possible.”

Distinguish (v): はっきり区別する

– Know the difference or consider as different

“Some people say they can’t distinguish Japanese people from Chinese people.”

Distinction(s): (n) 区別

– Being different in a unique way

“Is there a distinction between ryokucha and macha?”

Distracting (adj): 気を散らす

– Causing to lose focus or attention

“Please turn off the TV while I study, it’s very distracting.”

Doable (adj): 行うことができる、簡単にできる

– Can be done, easy to do

“You want these translations finished by tomorrow?  It’ll be tough, but it’s doable.”

Domestic (adj): 家庭の

– relating to the house or family

“People have owls as pets?  Are they even domestic?”

Domestic animal (noun phrase): 家畜

– an animal kept by people, usually as a pet.

“I’m not sure if foxes are domestic animals, but some people keep them as pets.”

Drawback(s) (n): 不利益、欠点

– Something unfavorable or not beneficial.

“One of the drawbacks to living in the city is all the noise.”


Edible (adj): 食べられる

– something that can be eaten; something that was made to be eaten

“Is this yogurt still edible?  It smells really strange.”

Elaborate (v): 詳しく述べる

– explain in greater detail

“He didn’t really elaborate on his plans, so I’m not sure what he’s going to do.”

Eliminate (v): 除去する

– Get rid of, remove

“How can we eliminate poverty?”

Empowering (adj): 力付けた

– Give or provide power or motivation

“His speech was very empowering.”

Engage (v): 従事する

– Get involved in

“When you engage your mind in learning, you become smarter.”

Enhance (v): 高める

– Make better or stronger. add improvements

“I just enhanced my computer by putting in additional memory.”

Entrench (v): 立場を固める

– fix firmly or securely

“Don’t entrench yourself in your beliefs; be flexible.”

Ethics (n): 道義

– a set of principles of right behavior

“Our company has a code of ethics to make sure we treat our customers right.”

Evaluation (n): 評価

– Act of determining the value, importance or effectiveness of something

“The teacher gave us a level evaluation.”

Exactly (adv): 正確に、きっかり

– in an accurate manner

“I need to know exactly what he said.”

Excusable (adj): 申し訳の立つ

– Can be excused

“I’m sorry, but your behavior is inexcusable, so you have to leave now.”

Exist (v): 存在する

– continue to be real or true

“It’s hard to believe that slavery still exists in some parts of the world.”

Experiment (v): 実験をする、試す

– try something new, usually to get better

“If you want to get better at English, you have to experiment with new words and expressions.”

External (adj): 外面の

– related to or connected with the outside part

“It’s good to breathe in external air sometimes.”

Extreme (adj): 極端的

– beyond what is normal

“Communism is a bit extreme, don’t you think?”

Extremely (adv): そこぶった、とても

– very, highly

“It is extremely humid in the summer in Osaka.”

Extrinsic (adj): 外部の

– originally from outside

“They said his condition was from extrinsic causes.”


Factor(s) (n): 因子

– something that contributes to a result or process

“Consistency is a big factor in determining success.”

Fragile (adj): はかない

– lacking strength

“His confidence is fragile now, so be nice.”

Frustration (n): 欲求不満

– Feeling or state of discouragement or irritation

Frustration is a normal part of the learning process.”

Fund (v): お金を供給する

– Provide money

“Your purchase funded our school trip, thank you.”

Fur (n): 毛

– The hair covering the body of a mammal.

“Your dog has really long fur!”


Gender (n): 性

– sexual identity

“If women get paid less than men for the same job then there is no gender equality.”

Gesture (v): 身ぶりする

– Make a gesture, show by gesture

“Is that woman gesturing at us?”

Glean (v): 収集する

– collect or learn bit by bit

“You can glean a lot of useful English from movies.”

Government(s) (n): 政治

– An agency which administers policies and affairs of a state

“It seems like most people don’t trust the government nowadays.”

Grace (n): 優雅、気品

– Effortless and refined movement, form or behavior.

“The ballet dancer dances with grace.”

Greedy (adj): 欲張りの、貪欲な

– Wanting more than is reasonable.

“Hey, share some of the food! Don’t be so greedy!”


Habitat (n): 生息場所

– The area or environment where something or someone naturally lives.

“The jungle is a lion’s natural habitat.”

Hand-cooked (adj): 手作りの

– something that someone cooks by themselves.

“Did you like the food?  It was hand-cooked (by the chef).”

Harassing (adj): 悩ました、困らせた

– Causing irritation or discomfort

“That guy keeps sending me harassing messages, I wish he would stop.”

Helpful (adj): 助けになる

– Providing or offering help

“He fixed my broken sink for free!  He’s so helpful.”

A hermit (n): 仙人

– A person who lives alone, apart from society.

“When I retire, I’m going to become a hermit!”

Highly (adv): 激賞した

– with great admiration or respect

“He thinks very highly of his boss.”

Hobby-horse (n): 常にそこに戻る話題

– a subject or topic one is obsessed with

“English education is my current hobby horse.”

Hold: [手に] 持つ

– keep in one’s hand

Hold (on to) the hand rail while on the escalator.”

Honest (adj): 素直な、真実だけを言うこと

– Not telling lies

“I know you want to be honest but telling a woman her hair looks terrible is a bad idea.”

“How-to” book (n): 実用書

– A book that explains or teaches the reader how to do something.

“Did that how-to book you bought help you learn how to fix the sink?”


Identify (v): 把握する

– Figure out the nature or character of something or someone.

“Can you identify the person who stole your purse?”

Immature (adj): 未熟な

– Not fully grown or developed.

“She’s 28, but sometimes she acts like so immature you’d think she’s 16.”

Implement (v): 実行する

– carry out

“How do you intend to implement this plan?”

Incremental(ly) (adj/adv): 増加した

– increasing step by step

“If you are incrementally improving, then you’re doing a good job.”

Indefinitely (adv): 無期限に

– the ending time is not determined

“He said he’s leaving Japan indefinitely.”

Independence (n): 自立

– Ability to take care of oneself

“It is important to teach children independence to prepare them for adult life.”

Infrastructure (n): インフラストラクチャー

The basic facilities, services, and installations needed for a society (transportation, water, electricity, gas, etc.)

“The earthquake destroyed most of the town’s infrastructure.”

Innumerable (adj): 無数の

– incapable of being counted; both countless and innumerable are basically the same.

“He has innumerable old records at home. I think he’s a collector!”

Inspired (adj): 鼓舞された

– excited or guided by inspiration

“I felt inspired to join a volunteer group recently.”

Insult (n): 侮辱

– Something that gives offense, offend

“In America, raising your middle finger to someone is an insult.”

Insulting (adj): 侮辱的な

– Expressing disrespect or rudeness

““Go to hell” is an insulting expression in English.”

Integrate (v): 統一する

– join with something else, unite

“If you can integrate your grammar and vocabulary together, you’ll be a good English speaker.”

Internal (adj): 内面の

– related to or connected with the inside part

“I think your computer is having some internal complications.”

Intrinsic (adj): 内部の

– originating from inside

“When motivation is intrinsic, you never run out of it!”

Issue(s) (n): 論点

– a matter or matters of public concern

“Equality is a very important (public) issue.”


Judgment (n): 判断

– Act of judging

“You don’t have the right to pass judgment on others.”


Lax (adj): 厳しくない、手ぬるい

– Lacking in strictness, slack

“The security in this place is so lax, anybody can get in easily.”

Lengthy (adj): 長々しい

– considerably long; long and boring

“That novel is really lengthy, how long will it take to read it?”

Liberating (adj): 自由にする

– Setting free

“Being on vacation is liberating.”

Likeable (adj): 好かれやすい

– Easy to like

“You will love her new boyfriend, he’s very likeable.”

Limiting (adj): 制限した

– Acting as a limit

“If your beliefs are limiting, you won’t be able to accomplish much.”

Linear (adj): 直線的な

– In the shape of the line, unmoving

“Improvement doesn’t occur on linear plane.”

Long-Distance (adj): 遠距離の

– between two distant places

“My best friend moved to America, so now he’s a long-distance friend.”

Longevity (n): 寿命

– length of life

“If you want to increase your longevity, you need to eat healthier.


Maintain (v): 維持する

– Keep up, continue, preserve, keep in good condition

“I’ve maintained several of my childhood friendships even as an adult.”

Manageable (adj): 扱いやすい、管理できる

– Can be managed, easy to manage

“A smaller house is more manageable than a larger one.”

Mature (adj): 十分に発達した

– showing characteristics typical of a well-developed adult

“Trying to get revenge isn’t very mature; just move on.”

Measure(s) (n): 処置

– a necessary action or necessary actions

“If a country accumulates too much debt, what measures will be taken?”

Meme(s) (n): ミーム

– A meme is a funny image, video or text that is copied and spread around the internet.

“Have you seen that meme about the cats?”

Misconception(s) (n): 誤解

– a false or mistaken view

“High school causes students to have misconceptions about learning.”

Moderate (adj): 穏健な

– against radical or extreme ideas

“Too much change is dangerous, we need to be more moderate.”

Mold (v): 陶冶する

– guide or influence the growth of someone

“Teachers mold the minds of their students.”


Never-ending (adj): 終わりのない

– something that does not end; extremely long

“Sometimes it seems like my problems are never-ending.”

Noticeable (adj): すぐに気付く、顕著な

– Easy to notice, can be noticed

“You have lost a noticeable amount of weight, good job!”


Obey (v): 服従する

– carry out or comply with a command

“It is important that soldiers obey their superiors.”

Objective(ly) (adj/adv): 客観的な

– Existing independent on the mind

“Think objectively about your mistakes, that will help improve.”

Obstacle(s) (n): 障害、障害物

– Something in the way of progress

“There are lots of obstacles on the way to growth.”

Offensive (adj): 侮辱的な

– causing someone to become angry or upset

“Please don’t tell any of your offensive jokes to our new friends.”

Ongoing (adj): 進行中の

– currently taking place; in progress

“Learning is an ongoing process.”


Paradigm (n): 見方

– A set of assumptions

“If you are pessimistic, you might want to consider your paradigm.”

Parameter(s) (n): 制限範囲

– a factor that determines the range of possibilities

“It’s important to set parameters for children’s behavior.”

Part(y/ies) (n): 政党

– An established political group

“Do you know how many parties there are in Japan?”

Pass Away (phrasal v): なくなる

– die (polite, formal)

“I was very sorry to hear your grandfather passed away.”

Passive(ly) (adj/adv): 受動性の

– Receiving stimulation without responding actively

“Many people think listening is a passive activity, but it’s not.”

Pattern(s) (n): 様式、傾向

– something that happens consistently

“In order to overcome your bad habits, you have to recognize your patterns of behavior.”

Patriotism (n): 愛国心

– Love of one’s country

“Having a national flag in one’s home shows patriotism.”

Penalty (n): 刑罰

– a punishment required for breaking a rule, usually money.

“What is the penalty for driving through a red light in Japan?”

Personality (n): 性格

– All the inner traits of a person.

“Being attractive isn’t enough, you need to have a good personality, too.”

Plastic Surgery (n): 形成外科

– Surgery to restore or repair external body parts.

“Do you think plastic surgery will make me look more beautiful?”

Point (v): 指を指す

– Aim or direct one’s finger at someone or something

“You shouldn’t point directly at people, it’s rude.”

Pop culture (n): 大衆文化

– Culture that we learn from the media, like TV, movies, YouTube or even popular books.

“If you don’t know the pop culture of a country it’s hard to understand their jokes.”

Poverty (n): 貧乏

– The state of being poor.

“Nobody wants to live in poverty.”

Prejudice (n): 先入観

– unreasonable, preconceived ideas or judgments

“Jackie Robinson overcame racial prejudice in America and become one of the most famous baseball players of all time.”

Prestigious (adj): 名声のある

– having a high/good reputation

“The Nobel prize is one of the most prestigious prizes in the world.”

Print media (n): 印刷媒体

– Newspapers and magazines

“Where do you get your news from, broadcast media or print media?”

Printable (adj): 印刷できる

– Can be printed, easy to print

“These worksheets are printable, so you can make copies of them easily.”

Process (n): 過程

– A series of actions that lead to a certain result

“Learning is a life-long process.”

Progressive (adj): 前進的な

– preferring progress towards better or different views or values

“President Obama is trying to change healthcare and welfare, he’s very progressive.”

Promising (adj): 末頼もしい

– Likely to develop into something great.

“If he keeps doing this well, his future looks promising.”

Protest (v): 異議を申し立てる

– formally showing or expression disapproval

“I often see people protesting nuclear weapons on the street.”

Proverb(s) (n): 諺

– A short and common or popular saying.

“A very popular proverb in Japanese is 知らぬは仏.”


Qualit(y/ies) (n): 特性

A characteristic or trait, something used to describe something else

“Honesty is an important quality in a friend.”


Racial (adj): 人種上の、人種間の

– about or related to race

“Segregation is an example of racial discrimination.”

Radical (adj): 急進的な

– preferring revolutionary changes

“America has been a democratic republic for a long time, changing it to a communist state is pretty radical!”

Rational/Irrational (adj): 合理的な・不合理な

– (not) Based on reason; logical

“Smoking is not a rational habit.”

Record(s) (n): 世評

– An unsurpassed measurement.

“The record for eating a 72 ounce steak the fastest is three minutes.”

Reflect (v): 熟考する、反省する

– Consider seriously and carefully

“It’s important to not only study, but reflect on your studying.”

Regard (v): 見なす

– consider in a particular way

“She regards me very highly.”

Reputation (n): 評判,世評

– what other people think of someone or something

“He doesn’t have a very good reputation.  He needs to improve it.”

Restricting (adj): 制限した

– preventing from going past certain limits

“Living in small town is kind of restricting.”

Retain (v): 記憶する

– Keep in mind, memorize

“It’s hard to retain all this vocabulary for a test.”

Reunion(s) (n): 再会の集い

A gathering of people who have been separated for a long time.

“I saw lots of old friends at my high school reunion.”

Revolutionary (adj): 革命的な

– resulting in a radical change

“America’s independence was revolutionary at the time.”

Reward (n): 報い、ほうび

– a satisfying consequence of good behavior

“A nice bath is a good reward for a day of hard work.”

Rewarding (adj): 価値のある

– Providing satisfaction

“Sometimes just working really hard is a rewarding experience by itself.”

(The) Rich (n) : 裕福層, 富裕層

– People who have a lot of money.

“Where do the rich live?”

Role(s) (n): 役

– expected behavior of an individual based on his or her position in society

“I think my favorite role in life is being a father.”

Rural (adj): 田舎の

– relating to the countryside

“Shiga is a very rural area.”


Saying(s) (n): 諺、格言

– A proverb or maxim

“‘Look before you leap’ is my favorite saying.”

Self-Esteem (n): 自尊

– Respect or pride in oneself.

“It is hard to be happy if you don’t have any self-esteem.”

Self-reliance (n): 自立

– Relying on one’s own abilities

“Children should develop self-reliance at an early age.”

Setback(s) (n): 頓挫、逆行

– an unexpected stop in progress, a change from better to worse

“It’s normal to experience setbacks in progress.”

Sign Language (n): 手話

– A language used by making signs with one’s hands

“How do you say your name in sign language?”

Signal (v): 合図する

– Make a sound or gesture to someone to communicate

“How do I signal a waiter in the US?”

Skill(s) (n): 技能、技術

– trained or developed ability

“He has some skill at speaking English.”

Slither (V): 滑るように進む

– glide or slide; describes the way a snake moves

“The snake slithered across the grass.”

Slithery (adj): つるつるした、狡猾な

– Literal meaning: to be slippery, to slide a lot

– Figurative meaning: tricky, clever, cunning (negative!)

“Snakes are slithery.”

“That guy is very slithery.  I don’t trust him.”

Societ(y/ies) (n): 社会

– all social relationships between people

“People couldn’t survive without the benefits of society.”

Spend (v): 過ごす

– Use, specifically time or money.

“Some women spend hours putting make up on every day.”

“I spent way too much money in Vegas.”

Spread (v): 広がる、流布する

– Distribute widely, stretch out

“The news spread across the country quickly.”

Stray (adj): はぐれた

– have wandered away from one’s natural habitat or home

“The stray tourist found her way back to the hotel after a few hours.”

Stray animal (noun phrase): 野良ー

– an animal which has wandered away from one’s natural habitat or home

“There are a lot of stray cats in my neighborhood.”

Support (v): 支える

– Provide for or maintain by giving money or resources

“We need to support each other sometimes.”


Take care of (phrasal verb): 大事にする

– take control of, make sure s/t or s/o is ok

“If you don’t take care of your problems now, they’ll just get worse.”

Task(s) (n): すること、仕事

– a piece of work to be completed

“Washing the dishes is one of my tasks at work.”

Taxes (n): 税

– A required contribution for support of one’s government.

“I heard the sales tax [消費税] went up recently.”

Think of (v): 考える、思い浮かべる

– Choose in one’s mind

“Can you think of a good movie to watch tonight?”

Thrilling (adj): ワクワクさせる

– causing to feel pleasure, exciting greatly

“Having a conversation in a foreign language is thrilling.”

Toward(s) (prep): に向かって、のほうに

– in the direction of

“Negotiation is the first step towards peace.”

Trade-off (n): より有利なもの得るために何かを差し出す取引

– Accept something bad in order to get something good.

“I got a smaller car because it consumes less fuel, even though it’s a little less comfortable.  I think it’s a good trade-off.”

Trait(s) (n): 特性

– A feature or aspect of one’s personality or character.

“Honesty is a very important character trait.”

Trick (n): 芸当

– a special skill

“Your dog is smart!  Can he do any tricks?”

Tuck into (phrasal verb): 寛大に食べる

– eat in an enjoyable way

“After a hard day of work, I like to tuck into a good meal.”


Understanding (adj): 物分かりが良い

– Appreciating the thoughts or feelings of others.

“I thought he would never forgive me, but he was so understanding.”

Unequal (adj): 平等ではない

– Not equal.

“The pay at that place is still unequal, someone should complain.”

Unfair(ly) (adj/adv): 不公平な・に

– not justly or evenly

“I don’t appreciate how unfairly you treat me.”

Unique (adj): 唯一の

– The only one of its kind

“Every country has its own unique culture.”

Universal (adj): 世間一般の

– Related to or the same everywhere in the world

“Some gestures are universal, like waving at someone to greet them.”


Valuable (adj): 価値の高い、重要な、高価な

– Easy to value; important

“These photos of my childhood are very valuable to me, please don’t lose them.”

Value (v): 大事にする、尊ぶ

– regard highly, think s/t or s/o is important

“If you don’t value your friends and family, you could lose them.”

Variable (adj): 可変の、変わられる

– Can vary; varies easily

“The quality of the food at that cafe is variable, so I don’t recommend it.”

Virtually (adv): 実質的に、ほとんど

– Almost but not quite, practically

Virtually no Japanese people speak English fluently.”

Visible (adj): 目に見える

– Possible to see, can be seen

“Even from this distance, the building is visible.”

Vital (adj): 重要な

– Necessary for the effectiveness of something

“Creating consistent habits is vital to improvement.”

Vote (v): 投票する

– Express preference for a candidate or  resolution of an issue

“I’m going to vote at the next election.”

Vote(s) (n): 投票

– The act of voting

“Every vote counts.”


Wealthy (adj): 裕福な

– Having a lot of money.

“When I grow up, I want to be wealthy.”

Welfare (n): 福祉

– Financial aid provided by the government.

“Does Japan care about welfare?”

Whole (adj): 全体の

– not divided, as one piece/part

“Did you eat the whole pizza by yourself?”

Wild (adj): 野育ちの

– not domestic or tame

“He went wild when he saw another guy talking to his girl.”

Wild animals (expression): 野生動物

– animals which are not or cannot be tamed or domesticated

“You can see wild animals in the zoo.”

Workplace (n): 仕事場

– a place where a person works

“Most people’s workplace is an office.”


Yearbook(s) (n): 卒業アルバム

– a memorial book published once a year, usually in high schools and usually at the end of the year, that has information on what happened that year.

“Sometimes I like to look through my old yearbooks and remember my days in high school.”

Technical Glossary

Hey guys!

So I’ve decided to create a page where I will collect any technical vocabulary I use in my blog.

Technical vocabulary is vocabulary related to language or linguistics.  We don’t use it very often in regular conversation, but I use it a lot when I teach English to my students.

I will update this page any time I use any new technical words or expressions, so please check back once in a while!

I will list each word, then

  • Its Japanese translation
  • Its part of speech
  • Its meaning
  • Some examples (if possible)



  • 機能
  • Noun
  • Quality of being able to do something


  • 抽象ー
  • Adjective
  • Not concrete; not visible or tangible

Action Verb

  • 一般動詞
  • Noun
  • A verb which expresses an action
  • Run, jump, take, grab, hit

Active form/tense

  • 活性形
  • Noun
  • The regular verb conjugation of a verb

Active verb

  • 能動態動詞
  • Noun
  • A verb that has been conjugated regularly


  • 形容詞
  • Noun
  • A word that describes a noun
  • big, easy, silly, fun, challenging

Adjective form

  • 形容詞形
  • Noun
  • A way to say a verb or noun as an adjective


  • 副詞
  • Noun
  • A word that describes a verb or an adjective
  • quickly, carefully, very, somewhat


  • 肯定的な
  • Adjective
  • answering with a “yes”


  • ふさわしい
  • adjective
  • suitable or fitting for a condition or situation


  • 勝手に思う
  • Verb
  • take for granted, believe, suppose



  • 意味の広い
  • Adjective
  • Having a wide range of meanings


  • 築き上げる
  • Verb
  • increase



  • 確実、確信
  • Noun
  • Confidence that something is true


  • 確認する
  • Verb
  • verify or consult to make sure is correct or accurate


  • 明らかにする
  • Verb
  • Make clear or easy to understand


  • 明白な
  • Adjective
  • Easily understandable


  • 連語になる
  • Verb
  • occur together in order


  • 連語、連語を作ること
  • Noun
  • The act of collocating, the state of being collocated


  • 普通の、よくあること
  • Adjective
  • Used often and/or by many people


  • 有形の
  • Adjective
  • Material or tangible, not abstract


  • 意外の意味
  • Noun
  • An idea or feeling associated with a word


  • 組み立てる
  • Verb
  • Form by putting parts together


  • 文脈
  • Noun
  • The situation in which something happens



  • 度合い
  • Noun
  • The extent or measure of something

Double entendre

  • 両儀を持つ語句
  • Noun
  • a word or expression that has two meanings, one of them is usually humorous.



  • 効力のある
  • Adjective
  • Having the intended or desired effect


  • 間違え
  • Noun
  • a mistake


  • 言い表す、表現する
  • Verb
  • Put into words, communicate, make feelings or thoughts known


  • 表現
  • Noun
  • A particular word or phrase



  • 形式の
  • Adjective
  • Following accepted norms or rules



  • 文法的
  • Adjective
  • About or relating to grammar



  • 失礼な、無礼な
  • Adjective
  • Not polite


  • 指摘する
  • Verb
  • Show


  • 尋ねる
  • Verb
  • Seek information by asking a question


  • 会話体の、形式ばらない
  • Adjective
  • Not formal


  • 入れ替えられる
  • Adjective
  • Can be changed with something else


  • 感嘆詞
  • Noun
  • A part of speech that expresses an affective state and stands on its own
  • Uh, what, wow, cool, yay

Intransitive verb

  • 自動詞
  • Noun
  • A verb which does not require an object


Key point

  • 重点
  • Noun
  • An important part, aspect or part


Language Transfer

  • Noun
  • Applying rules or knowledge from one’s native language to a foreign language


  • 聞き手
  • Noun
  • The person or people listening

Living Suffix

  • 生き接頭辞
  • Noun
  • A suffix which can be added to any verb to form a new word


Modal(s)/Modal Verb(s)

  • 法助動詞
  • Noun
  • A helping verb that expresses possibility or necessity



  • 意味の狭い
  • Adjective
  • Having only one or very few meanings


  • 自然な
  • Adjective
  • Expected or accepted as normal or correct


  • 不可避性
  • Noun
  • Being necessary or unavoidable


  • 消極的な
  • Adjective
  • Not positive

Negative Form

  • 不定形
  • Noun
  • The form of a form that is in the negative
  • Unhappy, impossible, indirect


  • 中立の
  • Adjective
  • Having neither positive nor negative connotation

(Not) Necessarily

  • とは限らない
  • Adverb
  • Sometimes true but not always

Noun Form

  • 名詞形
  • Noun
  • A way to change an adjective or verb into a noun


  • 数詞
  • Noun



  • 目的語
  • Noun
  • The part of the sentence after the subject and verb


  • 時代遅れの
  • Adjective
  • old-fashioned, not commonly used any more



  • おうむ返しに言う
  • Verb
  • Repeat without understanding

Passive form/tense

  • 動詞の形態
  • Noun
  • A verb conjugation that uses “be” and the past participle

Passive verb

  • 受動詞
  • Noun
  • A verb used in the past participle with “be”

Past Participle

  • 過去分詞
  • Noun
  • A verb form used in perfect and passive tenses and sometimes as an adjective

Perfect Tense

  • 完了形
  • Noun
  • A verb tense that uses “have” with a past participle


  • 許可
  • Noun
  • Permitting, allowing

Phrasal Verb

  • 句動詞
  • Noun
  • A verb with another word or words (usually prepositions) that takes on a particular meaning


  • Noun
  • A sequence of words that have meaning but are not a sentence


  • 丁寧な
  • Adjective
  • Showing consideration for others


  • 可能性
  • Noun
  • Being possible


  • 前置詞
  • Noun
  • A word that indicates a relation between two nouns or a verb and a noun or an adjective and noun


  • 発音
  • Noun
  • Utterance of speech in a certain sound



  • 量化できる
  • Adjective
  • Able to be counted


  • Noun
  • An exact number or amount

Question word

  • 疑問詞
  • Noun
  • A word that is used to make an open question
  • Who, what, where



  • 余剰的な
  • Adjective
  • Needlessly repeated


  • 繰り返す
  • Verb
  • Say the same thing someone else says


  • 要請、頼む
  • Noun, verb
  • Politely asking someone to do something for you


  • 必要とする
  • Verb
  • Have or make a necessity

Root (word)

  • 語根
  • Noun
  • the main component of a word
  • mem, vis, audi(o)



  • 文章
  • Noun
  • A group of words which forms a coherent meaning and can stand on its own.  It contains at least a subject and verb and usually an object.


  • 話し手
  • Noun
  • The person or people who speak


  • 特定の
  • Adjective
  • Explicit, definite, intended for or applying to a particular thing


  • 状態
  • Noun
  • The way something is


  • 述べる
  • Verb
  • Say something is true


  • Noun
  • A sentence which is not a question or a command

Stative Verb

  • 状態動詞
  • Noun
  • A verb that expresses a state


  • 堅苦しい、堅い
  • Adjective
  • Overly formal


  • アクセント
  • Noun
  • The force with which a syllable is spoken


  • 主語
  • Noun
  • The first part of a sentence, before the verb


  • 微細な
  • Adjective
  • So small it is difficult to notice


  • 接頭辞
  • Noun
  • A part added at the end of a root
  • -able, -ible, -ly, -ment



  • 傾向がある
  • Verb
  • Be true often or in most cases


  • 語調
  • Noun
  • The pitch of a spoken expression

Transitive Verb

  • 他動詞
  • Noun
  • A verb which requires a direct object



  • 珍しい、よくあることではない
  • Adjective
  • Not used often or by many people



  • 動詞
  • Noun
  • A word that indicates an action or a state
  • Go, stay, have, be, take

Verb form

  • 動詞形
  • Noun
  • The way to change a noun or adjective into a verb

Verb tense

  • 動詞の時制
  • Noun
  • The conjugation of a verb that determines the time of the action or state
  • Present simple tense, past continuous tense, present perfect continuous tense, etc.